Tuesday, April 16, 2019


It is the philosophy which has helped man to evolve the institution “home” which encourages
virtues of affection, courage, sympathy and morbidity and developed an appreciation of love for
family, community, country and humanity as a whole. Through this philosophy “home” has
become the most influential and sweetest of all human institutions and organization in shaping the
destiny of man. However, the home of the past is not the home of today. The advent of formal
education, civilization and technology has altered the structure and function of the home. For
women to meet the changes of modern times, they need education that will cater for the demands
of the time, such as knowledge of modern and scientific equipment in the home.
In addition, the philosophy of Home Economics Education is to improve the quality of life of
individuals, family and the nation so as to build:
 A free and democratic society
 A united, strong and self-reliant nation
 A great and dynamic economy
 A land bright and full of opportunities.
Conclusively, the family is the hub of the society. The quality of the family units make the quality
of the community. Home economics education believes in individual development and inter￾personal relations. Home Economics is the field of knowledge and service, primarily concerned
with strengthening family life through the education of the individuals, for family living and for
improving the services and goods used by families.
To individuals;
1. It teaches people how to live a good and happy life in the family, community, nation and
the world.
2. It prepares people to use what they have (resources) to get what they need.
3. It prepares boys and girls for homemaking.
4. It helps people to develop their abilities.
5. It prepares people for the jobs that require Home Economics knowledge and skills.
6. It can help people to star their own business.
7. It teaches people how to care for themselves.
8. It teaches people how to spend their money wisely.
9. It teaches people how to plan, cook, serve and eat good food.
10. It teaches people how to plan, choose, make, wear and maintain good clothing.
To the Family;
1. It aims at improving family life
2. It teaches people how to live happy lives in the family
3. It teaches people how to use what the family has (resources e.g. money, time) to satisfy
family needs (e.g. food, clothes, housing).
4. It can prepare family members to earn more income for the family.
5. It teaches family members how to get along well with one another in the family and society.
To the Nation;
1. It focuses on improvement of family living. The family is the basic unit of the society and
nation, when the welfare of every family is improved, national development is promoted.
2. It prepares individuals to work and earn income. It reduces unemployment in the country.
3. It reduces poverty in the country.
4. It contributes to food production, processing, preservation and preparation. It promotes
food security.
5. It helps to promote health of citizens.
A need can be explained as the gap or difference between where we are and what we want. For
example, a hungry or sick man is in a state of need, he wants food or good health. Human heeds
provide motivation for home management therefore basic human needs are things required by an
individual for daily survival, for example food, clothing and shelter are basic human needs.
Maslow's (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a
five tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. Maslow
wanted to understand what motivates people. He believed that people possess a set of motivation
systems unrelated to rewards or unconscious desires. Maslow (1943) stated that people are
motivated to achieve certain needs, and that some needs take precedence over others. Our most
basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behaviour.
Once that level is fulfilled the next level up is what motivates us, and so on.
This five stage model can be divided into deficiency needs and growth needs. The first four
levels are often referred to as deficiency needs and the top level is known as growth or being
needs. The deficiency needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need
to fulfil such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example,
the longer a person goes without food the hungrier they will become. One must satisfy lower
level deficit needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. When a deficit
need has been satisfied it will go away. Our activities become habitually directed towards
meeting the next set of needs that we have yet to satisfy. These then become our salient needs.
However, growth needs continue to be felt and may even become stronger once they have been
engaged. Once these growth needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach
the highest level called self-actualization. Every person is capable and has the desire to move
up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization. Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted
by failure to meet lower level needs. Life experiences, including divorce and loss of job may
cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of the hierarchy. Therefore, not everyone will
move through the hierarchy in a uni-directional manner but may move back and forth between
the different types of needs.
The original hierarchy of needs five-stage model includes:
1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.
2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.
3. Love and belongingness needs - friendship, intimacy, trust and acceptance, receiving and giving
affection and love. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work).
4. Esteem needs - achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, self-respect.
5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experience.

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